Central exclusive production

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Central exclusive production is any process of the form

\text{p}\text{p} \to \text{p} + \text{X} + \text{p}\;,

where \text{X} is any system in the rapidity gap between the two final-state protons, hence called central. The production of \text{X} is exclusive, because the hadronic final state is fully specified: the scattering protons remain intact and there are no beam remnants due to breaking-up protons.

In hadron collisions other than proton-proton, the incoming and outgoing particles are replaced accordingly.